Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers occurrences in females. While, all the lumps in breast are not cancerous, careful examination by an expert is extremely significant.


  • The patient notices transform in shape of the breast, observes a lump or notices a change in the appearance of the skin of the breast
  • At times a lump may be felt and seen in the underarms.
  • There could be pit in the breast like the skin of an orange.
  • Discharge from the nipples. The discharge might be clear or bloody.
  • The lump in the breast might be fixed or movable; it can be stony hard or little soft. The lump may be painful or painless.


The exact cause of development of breast cancer is unknown.

Risk factors

  • Hereditary :- if any close family member is suffering from the breast cancer then chances of breast cancer in the family is higher.
  • Early onset of puberty :- Girls who started menstruating before the age of 12 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Late onset of menopause :- Beginning of menopause after the age of 50 increased chances of breast cancer.
  • Nulliparous women :- women who have not conceived anytime are called nulliparous women. Such women are having more chances of developing cancer than those who have given birth to children.
  • Women on Hormone Replacement Therapy :- women who are on pills containing estrogen and progesterone are at superior risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Obesity :- Obesity is the risk factor for approximately all types of cancers including breast cancer.
  • Alcohol intake :- habitual alcohol consumption increases the chances of developing breast cancer in the women.


Following investigations are useful in diagnosing the breast cancer.

  • Biopsy
  • Mammography of the breast
  • Sonography of the breast
  • MRI scan of the breast

Prevention of the breast cancer:

  • Sustain a healthy bodyweight: An obese person bears higher risk of developing breast cancer. Keeping the Basal Metabolic Rate below 25 is prudent.
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Regular exercises like swimming, walking, jogging etc decrease the chances of developing the breast cancer.
  • Increase eating of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants. Antioxidants are known to fight and combat cancer forming free radicals in the body.
  • Try to avoid the post menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy.

One can simply note any abnormality in the breast at the initially by doing regular self examination of the breast. The early diagnosis helps in preventing the extend of the cancer to the nearby tissues and organs. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly help in improving the prognosis of the disease.


Treatment depends on the phase of the cancer and it’s extend. The cancerous part has to be removed by the surgeon. When there is spread of the cancer to other organs surgeon decides the further line of treatment.

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