Heart diseases are also known as Cardiac diseases. Cardiac diseases are a broad term for a number of conditions that have an effect on the heart and as of year 2007, it is the foremost reason of death in England, Wales and the United States.
The primary cause of cardiac disease is a narrowing of the lumen of arteries which supply blood to the heart, usually called coronary artery disease (CAD).
There are several other heart conditions that come under the umbrella of cardiac diseases.
Numerous conditions that affect the heart itself. Some of the arteries or veins leading to and as of the heart are called cardiovascular diseases. Research has suggested that women are more prone to conditions that affect the blood vessels themselves whereas men are more prone to conditions that affect the heart muscles. Most common conditions that cause cardiovascular diseases are:
The most common type of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis.
A disease of the heart itself where the arteries supplies the heart muscles are blocked by atheromatous plaques. An atheroma is an anthology or a swelling on the vessel wall composed of fats, calcium, cell debris, connective fibrous tissues etc.
'Ischemic heart disease’ is one more term used to signify a condition where blood supply to the heart is lessen.
Structural problems of the heart present exact from nativity are known as congenital heart disease. Genetic defects are to blame for this condition.
The heart cannot function appropriately because it is incompletely or inappropriately developed. There is an irregular flow of blood through the heart. There occur arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeats), structural abnormalities and cardiomyopathies (abnormalities of the heart muscles). Abnormal connections between 2 arteries occurring outside the heart, valvular defect, or existence of holes inside the muscular walls of the heart are some of the conditions often found.
Most ASDs are small and not require treatment. Infrequently, medium sized ASDs need surgical correction with a catheter procedure.
Large VSDs load the left side of the heart and enhance the pressures inside the right side of the heart and within the lungs. There is more than normal volume of blood flowing into the lungs and inside the right atrium. As the stack on the heart increases, the patient is able to develop heart failure also called congestive heart failure. Increased back-pressure on the lung might damage delicate arteries in the lungs. Therefore, large VSDs want open heart surgery (surgically repaired) as soon as possible.
Valves are flap-like shape present at the openings of the atria into the ventricles, and on the openings into the large blood vessels arising from the heart. They stop the back-flow of the blood as it passes or is pumped through the heart chambers. Any structural abnormality of these valves brings about multifold changes in the dynamics of blood flow.
Mainly the valvular defect encountered is pulmonary valve stenosis.
Through this valve, the blood flows from the right ventricle to the lungs where it picks up oxygen. When the valve is stenosed, the severity ranges from mild to severe. A mild form needs no treatment. Just rarely, an abnormal heart sound (murmuring sound) can be heard. Rectification of the condition when essential, it finished by a catheter procedure.
One of the common complex congenital heart defect observed worldwide is called 'the Fallot's tetralogy'. This defect has a combination of the following:
Cardiomyopathy means any disease of the heart muscles themselves. The heart muscle is referred to as the 'myocardium'. Any state that causes impair functioning of this muscle is considered as a Cardiomyopathy. The heart muscles become inflamed and don't work as they should.
Previous heart attacks, viral and bacterial infections and many other conditions cause cardiomyopathies.
Weakness of the heart occurring form no identifiable external cause. The major types are:
Is heart disease caused by high blood pressure? High blood pressures increase the load acting on heart. Over a period of time, the left ventricle thickens and cannot pump sufficient blood. Factors that cause this condition are
Inflammation of the heart and the tissues surrounding it. Any viral or bacterial infections can set off an inflammatory heart disease in a susceptible person. This inflammation can be either in the inner layer of the heart (the endocardium) or in the muscular part of the walls (myocardium). The conditions are then called endocarditis or myocarditis respectively.